Stendhal makes effective use in his novels of what can be appropriately termed the impressionistic mode, understood as a particular way of representing experience: impressions or effects first, then explanations or causes.
How can a comic bourgeois character become a "martyr?" Birotteau's rehabilitation is consistent with his character as portrayed earlier – a creature of instinct, not virtue, unable to understand the implications of the world he
Since the publication of Madame Bovary, Flaubert's descriptions have never ceased attracting the attention of the critics, who for the most part have unfortunately restricted themselves to noting the pictorial or Parnassian qual
Fear in Prosper Mérimée's narrative fiction operates in many ways as desire does in René Girard's Mensonge romantique et vérité romanesque. Fear of another can create, augment, or even help to overcome a greater fear.
Both Stendhal and Balzac frequently write not only the novel in hand, but also incidental accounts of what would have transpired, had matters been different: hypercreativity resulting in "para-stories," which enrich the novel be
In L'Assommoir, Zola makes excellent use of style indirect libre in rendering the emotional states of his characters – the narrator's role in realism precluding standard psychological analysis – in producing subtle effects of ir