prose fiction

Stendhal's Use of the Impressionistic Mode

Stendhal makes effective use in his novels of what can be appropriately termed the impressionistic mode, understood as a particular way of representing experience: impressions or effects first, then explanations or causes.

Booker, John T.

The Ambiguity of César Birotteau

How can a comic bourgeois character become a "martyr?" Birotteau's rehabilitation is consistent with his character as portrayed earlier – a creature of instinct, not virtue, unable to understand the implications of the world he

Pugh, Anthony R.

Emma by Twilight: Flawed Perception in Madame Bovary

Since the publication of Madame Bovary, Flaubert's descriptions have never ceased attracting the attention of the critics, who for the most part have unfortunately restricted themselves to noting the pictorial or Parnassian qual

Gray, Eugene F

Fear and Confrontation in Prosper Mérimée's Narrative Fiction

Fear in Prosper Mérimée's narrative fiction operates in many ways as desire does in René Girard's Mensonge romantique et vérité romanesque. Fear of another can create, augment, or even help to overcome a greater fear.

Sivert, Eileen Boyd

The Blue Illusion of Fromont jeune et Risler aîné

This novel supposedly marks a high point in Daudet's realism, and appeared only two years after he began to meet regularly with Flaubert, Turgenev, E. de Goncourt, and Zola.

Haig, Stirling

Octave Mirbeau antimilitariste

As a journalist, Mirbeau supported unknown writers and artists of his time as ardently as he denounced war, army and heroes in his novels.

Gruzinska, Aleksandra

History as Art: Ironic Parody in Anatole France's Les Sept Femmes de la Barbe-Bleue

France uses these parodies of fairy tales and folk legends to mock scholarly and scientific methodology and to demonstrate that historical commentary is not only irrelevant but also impossible.

Levy, Diane W

Hypercreativity in Stendhal and Balzac

Both Stendhal and Balzac frequently write not only the novel in hand, but also incidental accounts of what would have transpired, had matters been different: hypercreativity resulting in "para-stories," which enrich the novel be

Bart, Benjamin F

Remarks on Style Indirect Libre in L'Assommoir

In L'Assommoir, Zola makes excellent use of style indirect libre in rendering the emotional states of his characters – the narrator's role in realism precluding standard psychological analysis – in producing subtle effects of ir

Niess, Robert J
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