The common notion that Théophile Gautier's writings are somehow those of a failed Baudelaire ignores the essential differences that are inherent in the contrasting constructs of homo ludens (Gautier) and homo duplex (Baudelaire).
When treating the subject of androgyny in Théophile Gautier's Mademoiselle de Maupin (1836), most modern criticism has concentrated on the character of d'Albert instead of on Madeleine de Maupin, who traded her female identity for that of the cava
In Indiana (1832), George Sand makes many overt and disguised references to Shakespeare's Ophelia. Ironically, however, the "feminine" and tragic voice echoed most often in Indiana is that of Hamlet himself.
Charles Nodier, perhaps more than any other nineteenth-century writer, was haunted by the Terror. Thérèse Aubert, a short story published in 1814, at first seems an incisive critique of the excesses of 1793 and a turn away from the political.