Loti's account in Le Figaro of a French military operation near Hué in 1883 has been consistently misinterpreted, both during the public controversy that originally surrounded it, and by biographers and critics ever since.
This article examines first the system of relations that exists between the different characters of Balzac's novel Une Ténébreuse affaire (1841). The system is based on the model of the triangle, repeated three times.
The linguistic, semantic and symbolic materials in Maupassant's apparently simple story of Miss Harriet are part of an integrated and complex structure that brings the reader face to face with the larger Why?
Maurice Barrès's integral nationalism was predicated upon a rejection of those values he associated with the Third Republic. The bourgeois faith in progress, positivism, and democracy was symptomatic of moral and social decay.
Joris-Karl Huysmans's À rebours may appear to be a flimsy descriptive tale about an isolated æsthete, designed simply to highlight the author's own bizarre æsthetic tastes or to provide a naturalistic portrait of the aesthete ty
The "fin-de-siècle" theme of the division of the self between actor and spectator is best expressed in Mirbeau's Le Jardin des supplices (1899) through the image of the peacock, which is both a bird and a sign of beauty.