A close reading of Musset's Souvenir reveals that it exhibits all the defining characteristics of an important genre that Meyer Abrams has called "the greater Romantic lyric." The poem also contains a structural element recurrin
The Amendement Riancey of 1851, prohibiting newspapers from printing romans-feuilletons by imposing fines upon the writer, enables Nerval to introduce the notion of transgression into accounts of his journalistic activities and
On the surface Stéphane Mallarmé's prose poem "Un spectacle interrompu" narrates the anecdote of a misinterpretation that interrupts the circulation-of-meaning understood as the contents of any traditional text established on di
Madeleine experiences a trauma in the Norman forest that contradicts her liberated principles. The analysis of this key passage reveals the mechanism of her psychology and sheds light on Maupassant's naturalism.
Novelists use hairstyles as a kind of language. First, I examine the meanings and connotations of the terms for the changing hairstyles in nineteenth-century France. In novels they may suggest social status or character traits.
The imitation and adaptation of Gautier's enamel-and-cameo poetics by American poets, in particular by French Canadians and Latin Americans, reveal the inherent craftiness of a poetic craft whose irrelevancies and foreignness became relevant and l