Based on Sainte-Beuve's love affair with Adèle Hugo, the Livre d'amour, privately printed in 1843, was first published in 1906 and was treated not as a literary work but as a biographical document, a piece of evidence in the "tr
The French drama La Tour de Nesle was written by Alexandre Dumas père and the short-tempered Frédéric Gaillardet, who sued his collaborator six times. Because of their feud, the two writers gave contradictory versions of their part in this work.
Both Stendhal and Balzac frequently write not only the novel in hand, but also incidental accounts of what would have transpired, had matters been different: hypercreativity resulting in "para-stories," which enrich the novel be
In L'Assommoir, Zola makes excellent use of style indirect libre in rendering the emotional states of his characters – the narrator's role in realism precluding standard psychological analysis – in producing subtle effects of ir
Gustave Flaubert's booming laugh, and its written equivalents in his letters, which Jean-Paul Sartre considers a pretense on Flaubert's part, actually expressed a native comic sense that significantly shaped his writing.
Although it appears almost certain that Chateaubriand's travels in America did not take him further along his proposed itinerary than Niagara Falls, the author of Atala frequently found it necessary to speak of the Ohio Indian M
Trilby (1822) places the struggle between the heroine's moral sensibility and instinctive desire in the context of folk traditions generated by the collective unconscious of a Scottish rural community.