Although Renan's essay L'Avenir de la science (1848-49) may appear confused and repetitious when read as a linear argument, it conceals a dialogical structure anticipating the later Dialogues philosophique (1876) and the exchang
A fourth version of Flaubert's La Tentation de Saint Antoine, not previously described, is found in the Bibliothèque Nationale, NAF 23667. Flaubert's Correspondance suggests that this version was drafted in July 1869.
A close study of the sources, notes, drafts, and final form of passages concerning hunting in Flaubert's Saint Julien displays his purposes in seeking documentation, his methods of research, his use of data in early drafts, and
Spatially, the novels of the Rougon-Macquart form a tightly knit system in which characters and events seem imprisoned. Zola's descriptions of things, which constitute space, structurally manifest this notion of enclosure.
It has long been recognized that Flaubert's title character in Salammbô (1862) was a prototype of a recurring Decadent female persona who as an animated art object moves somnambulistically through her destructive social role.