The presence of pastoral topoi in Zola's narrative acquires significance in terms of the author's professed positivistic objectives for the novel, for the pastoral vision postulates a philosophy of life that predicates the aband
Jules-Antoine Castagnary (1830-1888), journalist, statesman, and art critic is best known for his ardent defense of his friend Courbet and for championing the cause of the Realist and Naturalist painters.
Intrigued by Charles Asselineau's statement that Baudelaire's poem "L'Ennemi" was "à lui seul la clef et la moralité du livre," a number of scholars have attempted to determine the identity of the "obscur Ennemi" that slowly dev
Nerval's sense of history differs from the historical perspective of his own generation. His nostalgia for values of the ancien régime, especially legitimacy and permanence, inform his static concept of history.