Traditionally critics of Guy de Maupassant's narrative "Qui sait?" (published in 1890, two years before his unsuccessful suicide attempt and subsequent confinement) have maintained that its protagonist's bizarre behavior reflect
Balzac's presentation is direct and clearly informative only on the surface. His language, however, is misguiding and it stirs readers ostensibly in one direction in order to arrive, deviously, elsewhere.
The article analyses religious symbolism in Stendhal's novel Le Rouge et le Noir, focusing on those aspects that connect the main character, Julien Sorel, to the figure of Christ. This identification is unrelated to faith.