The common notion that Théophile Gautier's writings are somehow those of a failed Baudelaire ignores the essential differences that are inherent in the contrasting constructs of homo ludens (Gautier) and homo duplex (Baudelaire).
When treating the subject of androgyny in Théophile Gautier's Mademoiselle de Maupin (1836), most modern criticism has concentrated on the character of d'Albert instead of on Madeleine de Maupin, who traded her female identity for that of the cava
In Indiana (1832), George Sand makes many overt and disguised references to Shakespeare's Ophelia. Ironically, however, the "feminine" and tragic voice echoed most often in Indiana is that of Hamlet himself.
This article compares the original and the censored version of Zola's adaptation of his novel Germinal in order to analyse the multiple discourses that are at work in the version of the manuscript annotated by the censors-those that the authoritie