In Nana (1880), Zola develops the notion of women's environmental influence, a paradigm of feminine power whose importance reflects the elevation of nature as a female creator and the determining influence attributed to the milieu in nineteenth-ce
According to anthropologist Gayle Rubin's theory of sex/gender systems, women in Western societies have traditionally served as the vehicles through which power is transferred from one male to another.
For Raphael, the protagonist of Balzac's novel La Peau de chagrin (1831), gambling was a metaphor for a way of life. His goal allowed no middle course: either the acquisition of wealth and the conquest of women – or suicide.
In response to the secularization of art and society and to the empty academism of the official religious commission, certain nineteenth-century Catholic artists and critics turned to the past and sought inspiration both for their lives as artists
Non sans raison, il a souvent été dit que Rimbaud, une fois en Afrique, avait posé à jamais la plume pour se concentrer tout entier au commerce. Pourtant, Rimbaud africain ressemble fort à Rimbaud poète des années 1870.
Paul Verlaine's Romances sans paroles (1874) can be described as a bisexual text in its autobiographical origins: most of the poems are inspired by, or depict, either the poet's heterosexual relationship with his wife or his homosexual relationshi