En écrivant un roman sur Carthage (Salammbô), cité perdue et encore peu connue faute de fouilles archéologiques, Flaubert prend ses distances par rapport aux conceptions rationalistes de l'histoire qui se développent à partir du XVIIIe siècle puis
Novelists use hairstyles as a kind of language. First, I examine the meanings and connotations of the terms for the changing hairstyles in nineteenth-century France. In novels they may suggest social status or character traits.
The ruins of the Paris Commune (1871) provided genius loci for Rimbaud's Vers nouveaux; the spatial qualities of the open ruin, in concert with the spatial conditions underlying the Commune, generate a mimetic model for revolutionary aesthetics in
The imitation and adaptation of Gautier's enamel-and-cameo poetics by American poets, in particular by French Canadians and Latin Americans, reveal the inherent craftiness of a poetic craft whose irrelevancies and foreignness became relevant and l