Victor Hugo’s controversial Bug-Jargal (published 1820, revised 1826) is often read as either négrophile or négrophobe, monarchist or pro-revolution: an ongoing critical debate that stems in part from the novel’s own fundamental
Fait remarquable dans Germinal, le “chapitre de Jenlain" (chapitre 6, quatrième partie) se désinteresse au plus haut point de la question sociale, substituant à l’évocation de la grève des mineurs et de ses enjeux des pages plei
This essay argues that in Salammbô Flaubert marks a rigorous cultural distinction between the civilized Carthaginians and the barbarous mercenaries that is based on particular practices of violence specific to each one.
Framed by a concept of fetish æsthetics that links Baudelaire and Proust’s fictional painter, Elstir, the article examines the evolution of Baudelaire’s fetishizing understanding of “modern beauty." It does so by asking the ques
The 1857 edition of Les Fleurs du Mal constructs images of consumption and digestion in ways that introduce questions of metaphysical or theological significance through the body, which mediates between the poetic word and trans