The ideas developed by Émile Zola in the Experimental Novel (Le Roman expérimental), published in 1880, were not fully put into effect until he wrote a trilogy of novels entitled the Three Cities (Lourdes, Rome, and Paris, publi
This article argues that the shift in author-publisher relations over the course of the nineteenth century, which has been characterized by scholars as alternatively either a “consecration” or a “degradation” of the author, was
In this article, I argue that an allusion to Delacroix’s La Liberté guidant le peuple (1830) has been overlooked in Balzac’s short novel, La Fille aux yeux d’or (1834–1835) as the marquise stands bare-breasted over a dying woman
La “gestuologie” se donne pour objet de déceler l’écart entre ce que disent les hommes et ce qu’ils montrent. La Comédie humaine, par son titre même, indique que cet écart sera mis à nu par l’écrivain.
Isaac Louverture’s 1818 memoir, when read in tandem with the memoir (1802) of his father, Toussaint Louverture, offers a nuanced representation of black masculine subjectivity and agency—one that elegizes his father’s legacy whi